Journal of Chemistry and Nutritional Biochemistry <p>Journal of Chemistry and Nutritional Biochemistry(JCNB) is a peer reviewed international journal published by Saba Publishing. The aim of the journal is to provide a venue for researchers and practitioners to share theories, views, research results and classroom practices in areas of Chemistry , Nutritional , Biochemistry presents experimental nutrition research as it relates to: biochemistry, molecular biology, toxicology, or physiology. Articles are published in English.</p> <p><strong>Editor in Chief: <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Dr. Ammar Mohammed Hamood AL-Farga</a></strong><br /><strong>ISSN (online)</strong>:<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"> 2709-5932</a><br /><strong>Frequency:</strong> Quarterly</p> SABA Publishing en-US Journal of Chemistry and Nutritional Biochemistry 2709-5932 Insights into COVID-19 Chemotherapies: Potential and Challenges <p>The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a newly emerged infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus, has recently become pandemic. Although several therapeutic options are currently available for the treatment of COVID-19, no effective antiviral agents have been developed yet. Many countries follow the strategy of keeping the patient in good state and count on his own immune system to develop an effective immune response. Since the beginning of the pandemic, many previous therapeutic options have been used in COVID-19 treatment including antiviral, non-antiviral drugs and convalescent plasma-based therapies. This review delivers comprehensive illustration of the current therapeutic drugs that have been used for COVID-19 treatment all over the world since the pandemic starts.</p> Esam Yahya Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemistry and Nutritional Biochemistry 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 2 1 1 12 10.48185/jcnb.v2i1.168 Aluminum Chloride-Induced Oxidative Damage to Serum and Combined Intervention of Ascorbic Acids and Massularia Acuminata On Selected Markers Of In Vivo Antioxidant Enzymes in Wistar Rats <p>This study evaluates the synergistic antioxidants effects of extracts of <em>Massularia acuminata and ascorbic acid</em> in aluminum chloride-treated oxidative stress in wistar albino rats with a view to investigate the preventive potential of co-administration of <em>Massularia acuminata</em> and ascorbic acids. The <em>in vivo</em> antioxidant properties of the extract were evaluated using <em>in vivo</em> catalase activity, superoxide dismutase activity and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay by standard methods via spectrophotometry. The <em>in vivo</em> studies were carried out on rats, grouped majorly into positive control, negative control and the treated groups. The positive control group was administered with normal saline (distilled water) orally, while the negative control group was orally induced with the toxicant (aluminium chloride). The treated group was orally administered with the extract after toxicant administration. Ascorbic acid was used as standard antioxidant in the study. The effects on enzymatic antioxidants and lipid indices were evaluated. Forty healthy Wistar rats sub-grouped into ten (10) groups were induced with aluminum chloride. Some rats were treated with ascorbic acid which is a well-known antioxidant, while others were treated with various extracts of <em>Massularia acuminata</em> (Pako Ijebu) at various doses. The experiment is designed as follows: in Group 1, animals were used as control group. Animals in Group 2 were the toxicant-treated groups administered with AlCl<sub>3 </sub>(34 mg/kg body weight). Ascorbic acid treated groups are the standard control (group 3) administered with 200 mg/kg body weight. Animals in Group 4 were co-treated with AlCl<sub>3 </sub>and Ascorbic acid (34 mg/kg aluminum chloride and 200 mg/kg body weight of ascorbic acid). Animals in group 5 were co-administered with ethanolic extract (50 mg/kg body weight) of <em>Massularia acuminata</em> and AlCl<sub>3 </sub>(34 mg/kg body weight), respectively. Animals in group 6 were also co-treated and administered with ethanolic extract of <em>Massularia acuminate (</em>100 mg/kg body weight) and AlCl<sub>3</sub>, respectively. Experimental animals in group 7 were equally co-administered with methanolic extract of <em>Massularia acuminate (</em>50 mg/kg body weight) and AlCl<sub>3</sub>, respectively. Animals in group 8 were co-administered with methanolic extract of <em>Massularia acuminate (</em>100 mg/kg body weight) and AlCl<sub>3</sub>, respectively. Group 9 animals were co-administered with butanolic extracts of <em>Massularia acuminata</em> (50 mg/kg body weight) and AlCl<sub>3</sub>, respectively. Group 10 experimental animals were also co-administered with butanolic extract of <em>Massularia acuminate (</em>100 mg/kg body weight) and AlCl<sub>3, </sub>respectively. At the end of the experiment, the animal was sacrificed after three weeks by cervical dislocation after they were immobilized using chloroform. Results show that ethanolic and methanolic extracts of <em>Massularia acuminata</em> contain antioxidant properties. Both doses of ethanolic extract dose (50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg body weight) group of methanol extract also reduced the level of MDA but not as ascorbic acid group. Both doses of methanolic extract of <em>Masssularia acuminata</em> act contrariwise from other extracts in that they show the highest level of malonaldehyde even more than AlCl<sub>3. </sub>The results of superoxide dismutase (SOD) assay test in this study show that the control group, ascorbic acid combined with AlCl<sub>3</sub> group, 50 mg/kg body weight of ethanolic extract. Both doses of methanolic extract groups have the same comparative value of SOD. The group treated with toxicant (aluminum chloride) and ascorbic group has similar relative value. The group treated with 50 mg/kg body weight of butanolic extract shows the highest value of superoxide dismutase activity that follow closely by 100 mg/kg of ethanolic extract group. The study concluded that <em>Massularia acuminata</em>, like ascorbic acids, can induced antioxidant enzymes such as SOD and CAT in aluminium chloride-induced oxidative stressed rats. It may therefore be used to protect the body against any pathological attacks from free radical and oxidative insults.</p> Oluwafemi Bakare Omowunmi Adedugbe Afolabi Owoloye Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemistry and Nutritional Biochemistry 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 2 1 13 28 10.48185/jcnb.v2i1.140 Phytochemical Analysis and Anticancer Activity of Ethanolic Extract Against A549 Human Lung Cancer Cell Line Azadirachta Indica <p><em>Azadirachta indica</em> phytochemicals are found to be effective against malignant growth and hostile to bacterial properties. In the specific examination, the coupling proficiency of five mixes that are available in the <em>Azadirachta indica</em> with all the eleven proteins through in silico techniques was completed. Plant removes harmful compound instigated injury by expanding the body's degrees of cell reinforcement particles. For example, they affect the glutathione, and improving the action of cancer prevention agent chemicals. About 549 cells treated with <em>Azadirachta indica</em> ethanolic separated in various hours (6, 12, 24 and 36 hours). After 36 hours, the cells development was controlled. There are re-established interests in home grown based meds to hinder the results of manufactured medications, <em>Azadirachta Indica </em>L. A leaf contains phytochemical intensifies that has all freer revolutionary rummaging just as anticancer exercises.</p> S. Azhagu Madhavan Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemistry and Nutritional Biochemistry 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 2 1 29 38 10.48185/jcnb.v2i1.167 Evaluation the Effect of Microwave Radiation on Gram Positive and Negative Bacteria <p>Using microwave oven nowadays has become necessary due to the need for speed in our daily activities. It is widely used in hating, thawing, and even cooking of food. It has been also used in sterilization and decontamination of food from microorganisms. This study aimed to evaluate thermal and non-thermal effect of a regular house holding microwave oven on <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>and<em> Escherichia coli</em>. Bacterial suspension is exposed to microwave radiations in different strength and durations and compared to unexposed cultures. During microwave treatment, non-thermal effect is evaluated by putting the suspension crushed ice. The results indicate that the viability of both gram positive and negative was highly reduced with thermal effect of microwave radiations, leading to complete inactivation at three minutes. Non-thermal microwave radiations were also able to cause change in the microbial viability of both tested organisms on at least two-exposure occasion. The evaluation of antibiotic susceptibility before and after microwave radiations treatment indicate that antibiotic resistance was highly increased to tested antibiotics specially after three-minute exposure, except for Staphylococcus aureus to Amoxicillin, which became more sensitive. Microwave radiations reported to have a strong activity in eliminating the number of microbes but, it may have an important role in development of antibiotic resistance that should not be ignored.</p> Esam Yahya Ali M Almashgab Muhanad Abdullah Abdulsamad Abdulmutalib Alabeed Allaq Amaal Mohammed Alqadhi Fatima M Garatem Sara S Aljundi Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemistry and Nutritional Biochemistry 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 2 1 39 45 10.48185/jcnb.v1i1.136 Water Extract of Dragon Fruit Peel Catalyzed Synthesis of Dihydropyridines By Hantzsch Condensation <p>Nowadays, natural substances are increasingly used in organic synthesis for their safety aspects towards the environment.&nbsp; That is why we identified a natural substance through which it promoted the organic reaction, and it could be sustainable and from plant sources obtained, and through this natural substance, it promotes the synthesis of dihydropyridine and its derivatives under solvent-free conditions.&nbsp; We have resorted to this method, being economical, free of minerals and solvents, to create highly functional dihydropyridine derivatives. It is promoted by the water extract of dragon Fruit (WED) at a temperature of (80<sup>0</sup>C) . these (WED) promoted reactions are found to afford high yield for the&nbsp; desired products and this method is&nbsp; Protocol an alternative to the current procedures.</p> Abdulfatah Abdullah Abdu Saifan Sultan Abduh Al-horaibi Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemistry and Nutritional Biochemistry 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 2 1 46 54 10.48185/jcnb.v2i1.205