Journal of Chemistry and Nutritional Biochemistry 2021-12-31T19:41:07+00:00 Open Journal Systems <p>Journal of Chemistry and Nutritional Biochemistry(JCNB) is a peer reviewed international journal published by Saba Publishing. The aim of the journal is to provide a venue for researchers and practitioners to share theories, views, research results and classroom practices in areas of Chemistry , Nutritional , Biochemistry presents experimental nutrition research as it relates to: biochemistry, molecular biology, toxicology, or physiology. Articles are published in English.</p> <p><strong>Editor in Chief: <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Dr. Ammar Mohammed Hamood AL-Farga</a></strong><br /><strong>ISSN (online)</strong>:<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"> 2709-5932</a><br /><strong>Frequency:</strong> Semiannual</p> Anti-hyperglyceamic Effects of Psidium guajava LINN Crude Leaf Extracts and Fractions in Alloxan-induced Diabetic Mice 2021-06-22T13:11:16+00:00 Uchenna Nwabunwanne Eze Ugwu Chukwuebuka V Onuoha Maxwell Ubenyi Stanley M <p>In Nigeria, rural inhabitants often resort to herbal remedies and dietary control for the treatment and management of various forms of diabetes mellitus. This study was conducted to provide the rationale for the use of Psidium guajava leaves as a potent traditional anti-diabetic remedy. The crude leaf extracts of n-hexane, methanol, and ethyl acetate of Psidium guajava were separately prepared by cold maceration. Then, ethyl acetate crude extract of Psidium guajava leaves was fractionated by column chromatography to yield ethyl acetate bulked fractions: EF-I (1-75), EF-II (76-150), and EF-III (151-250). The n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol crude leaf extracts and ethyl acetate bulked fractions (EF-I, EF-II and EF-III) were evaluated for anti-diabetic activity in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The blood sugar levels of treated and untreated alloxan-induced diabetic mice were assayed as indices of anti-diabetic effect. The phytochemical constituents of both crude extracts and ethyl acetate fractions of Psidium guajava leaves and the mean lethal dose (LD<sub>50</sub>) of ethyl acetate crude leaf extract of Psidium guajava were determined. The mean lethal dose (LD<sub>50</sub>) of ethyl acetate crude leaf extract was calculated to be 1500mg/kg b.w. The results indicated that oral administration of ethyl acetate, n-hexane, methanol crude extracts, and ethyl acetate bulked fractions of Psidium guajava leaves at a dose of 100mg/kg b.w on treated groups exhibited much significant[p&lt;0.001, p&lt;0.01and p&lt;0.05]anti-hyperglyceamic effect by ameliorating high blood sugar levels of alloxan-induced diabetic treated mice, while EF-II and EF-III showed non-significant[p&gt;0.05] anti-hyperglyceamic activity for the reduction in blood sugar levels compared with the negative and positive control groups. The anti-diabetic potency of the crude leaf extracts and ethyl acetate fractions were in the order; EC&gt;HC&gt;MC&gt;EF-I&gt;EF-II&gt;EF-III. The results of phytochemical screening of the crude extracts and ethyl acetate bulked fractions showed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids, terpenoids, glycosides, and steroids while reducing sugar was absent. The results from this study gives credence to the use of Psidium guajava as an anti-diabetic agent in the management of diabetes mellitus.</p> 2021-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemistry and Nutritional Biochemistry Experimental Analysis Of Generic Antibiotics Along With Honey Sensitivity Against Microbial Flora Obtained From Frozen Hilsa Fish (Tenualosa ilisha) 2021-05-06T11:45:30+00:00 Sunandan Dey <p>This study deals with the in-vitro experimental analysis of different generic antibiotics and season based honey, sensitivity against isolated bacteria. The characterization of bacteria isolated from the frozen hilsa is done through various biochemical reactions The antibacterial sensitivity of honey and antibiotics are evaluated through zone of inhibition analysis of bacterial colony. So, it is obvious that this experiment provides providential values for future research including food value analysis.</p> 2021-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemistry and Nutritional Biochemistry Review on Gene regulation: DNA-protein and protein-protein interactions and their regulatory elements 2021-10-20T17:43:28+00:00 Safir Khan Munir Ullah khan <p>The non-coding elements that control transcription are found in the chromatin structure of organisms. Recent findings identify the non-coding regulatory elements (e.g., enhancers, silencers, promoters) that control transcription and examine their respective protein interactions. The multiple topological environment limitations, including interactions of promoter-enhancer and specific enhancer-bound proteins with variable promoter compatibility, begin to shape a picture. These transcription factors and co-factors contribute to various expressions based on which enhancers and promoters are found inside sequences. A novel trait of transcription factors and co-factors establishes nuclear microenvironments or membranes compartments with phase-separated liquid characteristics. These settings are capable of enriching some proteins and tiny molecules at the expense of others. To better understand gene regulation</p> 2021-10-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemistry and Nutritional Biochemistry A comprehensive review of nocellulosic biomass and potential production of bioenergy as a renewable resource in Pakistan. 2021-12-31T19:41:07+00:00 mohammad siddique Suhail Ahmed Soomro Hijaz Ahmad Gull Karam khan <p>Global energy security, as well as environmental concerns, are major motivators for increased biomass usage around the world, especially in developing countries like Pakistan. Developing countries are experiencing a severe energy shortage. To fulfill its energy needs, the country spends about $7 billion per year on fossil fuel important benefits from nearly 159 million animals producing nearly 652 million kg of manure per day, which can be used to generate 16.3 million m3 biogas per day and 21 million tons of biofertilizer annually. In the year 2000, the Pakistani government launched the Biogas Support Program (BSP). It has already installed 1200 biogas units and plans to install another 10,000 in the next five years, Nearly a quarter of the country's biogas capacity comes from this area. The cost of conventional fuel is projected to be 92,062 PKR per year for a biogas unit with a 10 m<sup>3</sup> range. The implementation of biogas units is said to have increased women's opportunity costs, resulting in a positive effect on household income. The demand for biogas renewable energy systems is strong, and the number of these systems is steadily increasing. They are simple to implement and can be completed on a shoestring budget. For the 70% of the country's population who live in rural areas, a biogas energy corridor may be a viable alternative. An additional alternative is to build plants to bottle biogas. The government should formulate a policy that allows for the delivery of this technology to farmers' doorsteps. The article outlines the overall progress on Pakistan's existing biogas use scenario, as well as the potential for biogas and fertilizer, as well as the economic advantages of biogas over conventional fuels. This is the first time anything like this has happened, and it's great to see findings announced with such precision.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemistry and Nutritional Biochemistry The mechanism of mammalian mitochondrial quality control system 2021-12-12T17:17:04+00:00 Safir ullah Khan Munir Ullah Khan <p>&nbsp;The mitochondria perform an essential role in cellular metabolism by acting as a cellular energy powerhouse. It is also involved in several biological processes such as cell metabolism, stress signaling, calcium homeostasis, and reactive oxygen species(ROS) and apoptosis. Maintaining cellular physiological function is strongly dependent on mitochondrial quality control. mitochondrial malfunction will lead to various disorders. For this review, we evaluate the current understanding of the molecular mechanism of mitochondria quality control, which might also serve as an asset for organisms' health and the prevention of disease</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemistry and Nutritional Biochemistry